Friday, October 14, 2016

Cusco’s Double Legacy

                                                               by Jim Goodman

Cusco Valley, viewed from Sacsayhuaman
       When the Spanish conquistadores marched into Cusco in late 1533, they could not hide their astonishment.  They had never seen or expected anything quite so sophisticated and splendid as the Inca capital city.   Lying in a river valley at 3360 meters altitude, the city sprawled across the valley in the shape of a puma, the strongest animal in the Andes and a fitting symbol for the capital of a powerful empire. 
       The ‘head’ of the puma was the hill 260 meters above the city, the site of the elaborate Saqsayhuaman stone fortress.  The ‘body’ sloped down across the valley and constituted the residential quarters, with streets in a regular grid, narrow water channels running through them and square-based houses with steeply thatched roofs.  The ‘tail’ ended at the river junction.  The ’heart’ of the puma, and of the city even today, was an open square, the Warrior’s Square (now called Plaza de Armas), around which the Inca rulers built their palaces and ceremonial halls.  And the part corresponding to the puma’s genitals was the site of the magnificent Temple to the Sun.
Plaza de Armas, the heart' of the puma
       Called Koricancha in the local Quechua language, the exterior walls were gold-plated, but these had already been removed for the captive emperor Atahuallpa’s ransom earlier that year.  After receiving the ransom the Spanish murdered Atahuallpa anyway and now that they were in Cusco they discovered more treasure than they could imagine. 
       In the Koricancha alone they found a big, solid gold, jeweled disc representing the sun god Inti.  A Sacred Garden held plants made of gold and silver, gold corncobs and life-sized, solid gold statures of llamas and herders.  The Inca palaces (every emperor built his own) and other temples contained similar items.  The conquistadores’ attitude to all this Inca wealth was that it now belonged to them.
walls of the Sacsayhuaman fortress
       Their leader Francisco Pizarro installed 17 year-old Manco Inca as figurehead emperor and the following March officially established Cusco as a Spanish municipality.  He then oversaw the systematic looting of the city by his men.  All the treasures were collected, carefully recorded and melted down, weighed and distributed—one-fifth for the Spanish crown, the rest shared out among themselves.  The commanders moved into the palaces and others conscripted native laborers to dismantle public buildings and make them houses.  They also put up their first parish church—the Church and Convent of La Merced—in 1535.
Cusco Cathedral
       The gross exploitation soon sparked a rebellion.  Manco Inca escaped Spanish custody, amassed a huge army and laid siege to Cusco from May 1536.  At one point the Spanish held only the area around the main square.  Eventually, after a bold assault and capture of Sacsayhuaman, and the arrival of Spanish reinforcements from Lima, Manco Inca was forced to call off the siege in March 1537.  He retreated to Ollantaytambo, defeated a Spanish assault there, but then moved further north to the jungle outpost of Vilcabamba.
       Spanish defenders claimed that St. James, the patron saint of Spain, had intervened on their behalf to insure victory.  In gratitude, they built the Church of the Triumph in 1539 on the main square, with St. James the dominant image inside.  Over the next several years, though, Pizarro and his younger brother, Diego de Amalgro and his son, who had broken Manco Inca’s siege of Cusco, all died from internecine power struggles. 
the Jesuit Church, Plaza de Armas
       Another casualty of the colonial civil war was Manco Inca.  Renegades from the losing side in one of the Cusco battles in 1544 fled to Vitcos to the north and sought refuge with Manco Inca.  But it was a trick.  They were actually plotting to assassinate the Inca emperor to ingratiate themselves with the winning side in Cusco.  They surrendered their arms in return for asylum, but a few days later, in a relaxed meeting with Manco Inca, one soldier pulled out a dagger and killed their host.  The renegades escaped, but were caught on the road to Cusco by Inca warriors and killed.
       Back in Cusco, after the civil war ceased, successive Viceroys tried to entice Manco’s successors, with a mixture of material incentives and military threats, into vacating Vilcabamba and coming to Cusco.  Finally, in 1572, Viceroy Francisco Toledo ordered an assault on the last Inca stronghold, deep in the jungles, that successfully captured the young emperor Tupac Amaru.  The expedition brought him back to Cusco, where Toledo had him beheaded in the Plaza de Armas.
12-sided stone on Hatun Rumiyoc Street
       With the Inca threat permanently extinguished, the transformation of Cusco accelerated.  It had already started around Plaza de Armas with the construction of the Church of the Triumph.  In 1559 work commenced on the building of a cathedral, which incorporated the earlier church as an annex, on the foundations of the palace of Viracocha, one of the most illustrious Inca emperors. 
       To construct their own houses, churches and administrative buildings the Spanish demolished existing Inca structures and re-employed the stones.  Unfortunately, none of the conquistadores left detailed drawings of the original palaces, fortresses and temples.  But from the existing wall segments, foundations and ruins elsewhere in the Valley of the Incas, they featured walls of interlocking stone blocks.
Church and Convent of Santo Domingo
The Spanish chroniclers of that time all expressed their admiration and amazement.  It was no wonder.  Inca masons were the best in the world.  They cut and polished huge blocks of stone that fit tightly together without mortar.  They cut some with extra corners and fit them next to other irregular blocks in complex polygonal patterns.  This technique prevented the walls from tumbling down during earthquakes.
       Besides the former Incas’ palaces, one of the prime sources for building material was the fortress at Sacsayhuaman.  Now that the Inca threat had been eradicated, and more colonists were arriving from Spain, the settlers, using conscripted Indian laborers, raided Sacsayhuman for stone.  Workers had to transport the stone down the mountain to Cusco, break it up and make stone bricks more suitable for a Spanish-style building. 
conquistador on a Cusco house
St. Michael the Rifleman
       They didn’t take everything, of course, for the blocks on the main walls, some weighing up to 300 tons, were too big.  As a result, Sacsayhuaman today is one of the prime tourist attractions of Cusco and the best place to appreciate the skills of Inca stonemasons.  
balconies and colonnades--the Cusco style
       What the Spanish did not appreciate was the general shape and style of the buildings.  They were used to a very different architectural legacy.  So they set out to recreate Spain in America.  The cathedral, finally completed in 1654, was in the Gothic-Renaissance style.  Meanwhile, the Jesuits built their own church on another side of the square, over the foundations of the palace of Huayna Capac, the Inca emperor who died a few years before the Spanish arrived.  This was in what has been called the colonial Baroque style, with a big domed vestibule in the rear.  It was intentionally designed to be more ornate than the cathedral, which prompted the Archbishop of Cusco to complain to the Pope.  But by the time the appeal reached the Vatican and the reply came back, by slow ship, of course, the Jesuits had already completed their building and no one demanded they take it down.
plaque on a house built in 1697
       Today both churches are both filled on Sundays and are major tourist attractions in the city.  One can argue over which building is aesthetically more pleasing, but the interior of the cathedral is definitely more richly embellished, with carved wooden altars and lots of gold and silver furnishings, courtesy of religious patrons enriched by the exploitation of the gold and silver nines in the colonies. 
       Portraits of Cusco’s colonial bishops hang from the walls, as well as numerous paintings of the Cusco School of art, which dominated painting styles throughout the colonial era.  The subjects were religious and didactic, intended to instruct Indian converts, and so sometimes included local Peruvian motifs.  For example, in a portrait of the Last Supper, Jesus and the apostles dine on guinea pig, an Andean specialty.  Another popular theme was that of warrior angels, dressed like Spanish nobles and carrying firearms, like the archangel St Michael the Rifleman.
       The Spanish also converted the Temple of the Sun into the Church and Convent of Santo Domingo.  In this case, unlike the churches around Plaza de Armas, they used much of the original walls and foundation, though concealing it behind an added exterior façade.  As a result it withstood the 1650 earthquake that delayed completion of the cathedral and knocked down the Church of la Merced.  Three centuries later, a 1950 earthquake damaged those exteriors and revealed the Inca stone foundations.  Now the church is a tourist attraction for its combination of Inca and colonial architectural elements.
bread sellers on Hatun Rumiyoc
typical Cusco architecture
       Besides the churches, the Spanish surrounded the Plaza de Armas with colonnaded stone arcades.  They extended this to some of the streets radiating from the square, which became the colonists’ main residential neighborhoods.  Colonists from Spain, the only ones officially allowed, continued to arrive in the 17th and 18th centuries, though not in overwhelming numbers.  Yet until the late 18th century, though Lima had been the capital of Peru since shortly after the Conquest, Cusco was the most populous city on the continent.  The numbers, however, were not very large back then—less than 7000.
colonial -ra building on Plaza de Armas, now the Bagdad Cafe
       Nowadays over 400.000 people live in Cusco.  Yet it’s far from the kind of congested, traffic jam city one would expect from those numbers.  Cusco has been a World Heritage Site since 1983 and city authorities have taken great pains to preserve everything that made it worthy of the award.  Most travelers see Cusco as a stopover on the way to Machu Picchu.  Those with time to linger longer in Cusco, though, will find their time well spent.  Just about every street in the city is interesting, for one reason or another.
       Many streets run uphill, so sometimes it’s the view of the hills and the settlements that crawl up them.  Sometimes it’s a plaque on the outside of a house wall marking the date of construction or of a proud conquistador.  Or one could pass by an iron door from the 17th century, with a knocker featuring an Inca-style godhead.  On some streets the houses are all whitewashed.  On others they are in pastel colors.  But most use orange tiles for the roof, giving a kind of uniformity to the city when viewed from above.    
the handicrafts market at theChurch of la Merced
       One of the streets, just east of the cathedral, called Hatun Rumiyoc (Street of the Big Stone in Quechua) features an extant portion of the original long walls of the palace of the Inca Roca.  The rest of the palace was demolished and replaced by the archbishop’s residence.  This street is the easiest place in Cusco to marvel at the skills of Inca stonemasons.  The Big Stone of the street’s name is a block with twelve distinct corners, fitted snugly into the polygonal pattern of the walls.  This is the most famous stone in Inca architecture, the only one with that many sidess.  But the walls here, like Sacsayhuaman’s, have many blocks of six, seven and eight corners.
       Another delight in wandering the streets of Cusco is the preponderance of carved wooden balconies on the upper floors the buildings.  They could be painted blue, yellow or green, or left in the original dark or light brown color of the wood.  The best exhibit lush, intricately carved vegetative patterns.  Some are small, suitable for one or two people, with a carved railing.  Others are enclosed by a full screen.  Some houses have two or three small balconies, spaced evenly apart.  Or there could be a single balcony as long as the width of the building.  Most of these types now serve as dining areas for the restaurants the buildings have become, especially around the Plaza de Armas.
north of Plaza de Armas and San Cristobal Church
       The advantage of sitting in one of these balconies for a meal or a drink is the view of the street action below.  Much of this will involve tourists wandering around, but the city also has a strong indigenous flavor, with Andean Indians, the women dressed in voluminous skirts and round hats, also in the streets and markets, llamas in tow, adding color to the scene. 
       Some of them live in Cusco and run stalls in the central covered market and handicraft stalls in the open-air market next to the Church of la Merced.  Among the items on sale here are scarves, sweaters, caps and ponchos made from alpaca wool, Pan pipes and other musical instruments, jewelry of all kinds, ceramic reproductions of classic, pre-Conquest pottery, wood sculptures, religious paraphernalia, carved gourds, alpaca bone flutes and chess sets with pieces of conquistadores on one side and Incas on the other.
     The scene exemplifies the historical and cultural fusion of contemporary Cusco.  Native merchants, descendants of those who survived the trauma of conquest and colonialism, sell their still appreciated handicrafts in the shadows of the church representing the imposed religion of the Europeans.  It’s all part of Cusco’s charm.

Cusco street on the edge of the city
                                                                      * * *                       

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Dali to Jianchuan: Other Lakes, Other Bai

                                               by Jim Goodman

kilns on the road above Dengchuan
       Of all the places inhabited by Yunnan’s Bai minority nationality, Dali draws by far the most attention.  An historic city itself, former capital of the ancient Kingdoms of Nanzhao and Dali,  it lies on a narrow, north-south plain, bound on the east by the 42 km-long Erhai Lake and on the west by the 19 peaks of the Azure Mountains.  Ancient pagodas and monuments, old temples, Bai-style architecture, traditional rural and lakeside villages and the superb scenery all entice one to extended exploration.  And travelers can easily observe traditional minority life just by wandering around in the Bai villages north of the old town.
West Lake, Eryuan County
       For most travelers, that’s about the only exposure they will have to Bai culture.  Their next stop north is Lijiang, via the new highway running NNE via Heqing.  A few may venture to Shaxi, in Jinachuan County, and take the old route to Lijiang directly north through Eryuan County.  But they will not stop at Eryuan city, for it is off the main road, and will dogleg south to Shaxi well before reaching Jianchuan city.  Thus, most of Eryuan and Jianchiuan Counties remains relatively unknown territory.
Bai villagers on the water at West Lake
       Admittedly, the scenery is not as spectacular, for none of the mountains to the west crest over 4000 meters, as a few near Dali do.   The lakes are smaller, mostly to the west of the road, and certainly not appropriate for the big tour boats that cruise on Erhai.  Because they are smaller, though, they are community lakes, used by the adjacent villages as fish sources.  With their fishing and farming, their market days and religious holidays, the Bai in these two counties practice a lifestyle every bit as traditional as the villages around Dali.
      The old route 214 north of Dali crosses into Eryuan County just before the northern tip of Erhai Lake.  The northernmost section of the lake, including Shuanglang on the other side and Shaping, the popular market day village, are part of this county.  Just beyond the lake the road dips into Dengchuan, known for the milk cows raised here.  Most of the milk goes to the Dengchuan Milk Powder Factory, which turns out a number of products, among them the popular snack called ‘cheese fan.’  Made from fermented milk, shaped like a fan about 18 cm long and 5 cm wide, dried and served crisp, it is sold on the streets of Dali and in the markets of Dengchuan, Eryuan and beyond.
Eryuan old quarter
       After crossing a stream in Dengchuan, the one running from West Lake to Erhai, the road rises again, passes a long line of kilns and moves into the countryside, flanking the Er River.  This river begins in the northwest part of the county (hence its name Eryuan—source of the Er) and is one of the main feeders of Erhai Lake.  A little further on is the town of Yousuo, where a dirt road to the left leads to West Lake, the first of the county’s three charming bodies of water.
       It’s about a 20-minute walk to the lake, across a flat plain of farms and villages, with mountains rising majestically behind.  The houses are in the Bai style common around Dali, likewise behind whitewashed walled compounds, and the women dress similarly.  West Lake village is on the northeast side of the lake and virtually every house has a small boat.  The lake is less than four square km and not very deep, averaging 1.5 meters.  Villagers paddle or pole themselves out onto the water to fish or to dip buckets to scoop up some of the lakebed mud to use as fertilizer for the fields.  They also gather water chestnuts and a kind of edible moss from the lake.
Eryuan Bai girl
       In recent years Dali entrepreneurs have set up West Lake as a day’s tourist excursion.  A ticket booth stands near the start of the village, with an entrance fee of 120 yuan.  But those not interested in a short boat ride, Dali Bai dance show or buying Dali handicrafts from the little market inside can walk past the ticket booth and stroll into the village instead.
       All the lanes seem to end in a lakeside house or go back out to the fields, though.  There doesn’t seem to be a way to circumambulate the lake on any kind of fixed path.  That could change, however, as a result of ‘tourism development.’
       Further up Route 214, but several kilometers off to the west, is Eryuan city, 73 km north of Dali, the biggest in the county, originally known as Jade Lake.  It lies in a partly secluded valley, hardly visible from the turn-off, backed by high mountains, with villages on all sides.  Though slightly higher and further north than Dali, it has a milder climate because the surrounding mountains shield Eryuan Valley from the cold winds coming down from the Azure Mountains.  Two decades ago traditional houses dominated, especially in the western part, where the weekly market day took place.  It has modernized quite a lot since then, but the villages are still mostly unaffected. 
Eryuan market day
       Bai women dress much the same as in Dali, with a side-fastened vest over a long-sleeved blouse, trousers, apron and bonnet.  The younger women don a different headdress, though, with an embroidered band across the front and pompoms tied to the top.  They also tend not to dress in white like the Dali girls, but wear red or green vests and dark aprons and trousers. 
       Besides the mountains, Eryuan’s main physical attraction is the small lake about two kilometers past the city’s northern suburbs.  About six km long and averaging two km in width and eleven meters in depth, its jade-green waters supposedly originated with a legendary visit by the Emperor Jianwen in the Ming Dynasty.  He was out on the lake in his boat, enjoying the mountain scenery all around, but disappointed in the muddy color of the lake’s water. 
Cibi Lake
       Then he heard the moving song of a Bai woman in her fishing boat.  Catching up to her in his own vessel, he asked her to sing again.  Equally affected by this second song, he decided to give her a souvenir of the occasion and removed a jade ornament from his fan.  But when he reached over to hand it to her he dropped it into the lake.  The waters suddenly frothed up and spewed and then settled, leaving the lake a clear, jade-green color.  It became known as Jade Lake or Green Lake afterwards.
       Nowadays it’s called Cibi Lake, after the cibi flower, a local species related to the water lily that grows in the shallower parts of the lake.  In the summer months it blooms and the white blossoms mottle the lake surface.  At other seasons other flowers lie in the offshore water.  A restaurant stands on the shore nearest the villages, but tour boats are rare, only local fishermen row out on the lake.  The shallowest part has been bordered by nets and turned into a fishpond.  A road runs around the perimeter of the lake, but it takes several hours to walk it.  
Haixihai Reservoir, Eryuan County
       Buge Mountain rises sharply to the west of Cibi Lake.  At the Longwang Temple at its base the Eryuan Bai celebrate a festival on the 23rd day of the 6th lunar month, the day before the Torch Festival in Dali.  They don’t celebrate that event themselves, but may visit Dali during its Third Month Fair and Shaping for the Mid-Autumn Festival.  The Bai in Eryuan have their own specific festivals, like the Farm Tool Fair the 15th day of the 2nd lunar month, as well as Yinyinwu, in Fengyu village the 5th day of the 1st lunar month.
       Yinyinwu is a festival designed to strengthen relationships between children and their elders.   Because this is a magical day, the older generation pays special attention to what the children say, for it might have some hidden significance.  Groups of children march around to the houses and the elders welcome them with firecrackers and send them off with gifts.
new Bai houses in Jianchuan
       Returning to Route 214, the road north continues along the same kind of landscape, with scattered villages in low, rolling hills, with higher mountains to the west than to the east.  In Niujie district, the last in the county, west of the road lies the picturesque Haixihai Reservoir.  A little larger than West Lake, it sprawls next to a gently rising hill, with a traditional village on its east bank.  Reservoirs are artificial creations, of course, but at least here the engineers picked a pretty location. 
       From here the road ascends into the hills again, enters Jianchuan County and then winds down to the town of Diannan and the Heihui River.  At a junction just past the town, one road follows the Heihui south to Shaxi, while the main route 214 branches north to Jianchuan.  This valley, the last major Bai population center along the route north of Dali, is at 2200 meters altitude, about 200 meters higher than Erhai Lake and subject to cold winds in the winter from the snow peaks northwest of the county.
       The name Jianchuan means Sword Plain, either after its general shape or because it was an ancient military camp.  In the 8th century the valley was the last refuge for people from further south who were resisting the expansion of the Nanzhao Kingdom, which finally conquered Jianchuan in 794.   The inhabitants today are predominantly Bai, but speak a dialect difficult for villagers around Erhai Lake to understand.  Like the Bai in Eryuan, the women dress slightly differently and the people celebrate a couple of their own unique festivals, both honoring children.
Jianfeng Pavilion
Jainchuan old quarter street
         On the 15th day of the first lunar month Jianchuan Bai honor a child-bride who drowned herself to avoid marriage.  Young girls parade behind her portrait, a reminder not to mistreat daughters.  On the 8th day of the 2nd moon they stage the Festival of Enhancing Children's Appetites.  This originated with a popular revolt against another custom long ago.  This was the day operas were staged at the Temple of the God of Letters.  The rich folks wielded whips to keep the children in line.  One year the parents refused to let their children attend.  Instead, as today, they prepared special food for them and dispatched them for a picnic in the woods.
       The other major festival specific to the county happens full moon day of the sixth lunar month at Sword Lake, close to Diannan.  This is the main natural attraction in the area, 15 km in circumference and about 8 square km in surface area.  Its depth averages four meters, but is quite shallow near the southern shore, where lines of nets stand in the water and fishermen pole their small boats to cast lines.  On this day people walk around the lake, or at least along part of it, meet friends and stop for picnics.  In the evening as the moon rises, young couples take boats out on the lake and the festival is also popularly known as Lovers’ Rendezvous.
Bai footwear stall on market day
Jianchuan Bai layered bonnet
      Jianchuan itself, 7 km further, was originally called Jinhua—Golden Flower—and was famous for its wooden furniture.  Skilled craftsmen produced elegant, carved pieces to supply the homes of the elite everywhere from Dali to Lijiang.  In the old days, before trucks, the Bai, both men and women, transported the tables, beds, cabinets, chests and so forth on foot, on their backs, supported by a head-strap.
       Local skills are still alive.  Homes in the old quarter exhibit numerous examples and shops in the northern neighborhoods still market furniture and statues.  Modern buildings fill the spaces beside the route through the city, but traditional houses characterize the western, older half.  Here are brick streets along a stream, stately old trees, an occasional pagoda and the lovely Jianfeng Temple, featuring a three-tiered, octagonal, Qing Dynasty pavilion.
copper ware for sale in Jianchuan
Jianchuan Bai woman in the market
       Jianchuan Bai women wear the same Bai vests, blouses, aprons and trousers as the Bai of Eryuan and Dali, but the bonnet is unique.  It has several layers of brightly colored stiff cloth comprising the lower half.  North of the city, closer to Lijiang Naxi Prefecture, some women dress in Bai outfits, but also don a Naxi-style women’s cape.  As with other Bai, the younger women tend to wear brighter vests of red or green and the older women prefer blue and black.
      Two years ago a new highway opened connecting Jianchuan to Dali and reducing the journey to less than two hours.  That puts the city in the range of a day-trip out of either Dali or Lijiang.  So now travelers are more frequently stopping there to enjoy its assets.  Hopefully, the increased attention and appreciation of Jianchuan’s special features will inspire its people to maintain them.
Sword Lake, Jianchuan County
                                                                   * * *      


Monday, September 26, 2016

Non-Buddhist Dai in Xishuangbanna

                                                       by Jim Goodman

Huayao Dai in Mengyang market
       The usual assumption about the Dai ethnic minority in Xishuangbanna is that they are Buddhist.  After all, virtually every town and village inhabited by the Dai has a Buddhist temple.  I thought so myself on my first trip to Banna two dozen years ago.  What little information I had on the prefecture informed me that three main branches of the Dai lived here:  Shui Dai, Han Dai and Huayao Dai.  The Shui Dai lived near water (shui in Chinese), were the most numerous of the three and called themselves Dai Lu.  The other two lived away from streams and dressed differently and that’s all I knew at the time.
       At the end of that first trip, though, almost by accident, I learned that not all the Dai in Banna were Buddhist.  After visiting the tropical garden in Menglun, I opted to return to Jinghong via the northern route through Jinuoshan, intending to stop at Mengyang.  Nice route, much of it a nature reserve, but back then there was hardly any traffic.  I missed whatever bus was running and had to wait hours before I could flag down a truck.  I arrived in Mengyang quite late.
       I didn’t have much time in the morning, for I had a flight back to Kunming to catch late in the day.  The road back to Jinghong climbed over high hills just northeast of the city and took at least three hours.  I set out early to see the Mengyang attraction that inspired my stopover—the elephant tree.  This was a banyan tree in a grove at the edge of the town, whose roots thrust the tree trunk above the ground, with one part extending like an elephant’s trunk.  An eye had been painted on the part corresponding to the head, so that it did indeed resemble an elephant.
Huayao Dai woman carrying her load
Huyao Dai women in Mengyang
With a couple of hours left until the bus departed, I looked around for a temple to photograph.  Mengyang’s not a big town, even now, but I couldn't find one.  I did spot a couple beautifully dressed women in the market, carrying their loads in baskets suspended from each end of a balance pole.  Someone in the market identified them for me as Huayao Dai, non-Buddhists, which is why no temple stood in the area. 
the 'elephant tree' in 1992
the 'elephant tree' in 2006
       They were certainly more colorful than any Shui Dai I’d seen so far.  The outfit comprised a tubular skirt, a shorter skirt above that, long-sleeved jacket, shirt and silver turban.  The garments were black, but embellished with broad sections of colorful embroidery, especially around the midriff and hips.  It is this feature that gave then the name Huayao Dai—Flowery Waist Dai.
       It was several years before I could make a return trip to Xishuangbanna, but that included another, more extended visit to Mengyang.  A newly built road skirted the hills and the journey only took 45 minutes.  The town hadn’t grown much.  It still had just one main road running through the town, with one side, which contained the market, full of cement buildings and the other side basically the original Dai village, with houses of wood and brick. 
       The only real change was with the elephant tree.  Now the grove had a wall around it and a ticket booth at the entrance.  The elephant tree itself, maybe because it was in danger of sinking or toppling over, was now propped up by stilts and the ‘trunk’ was encased in wooden planks.  Now it looked like a crippled elephant on crutches with its fractured trunk in splints.
Huyao Dai village and fish pond
       But this time I came not for the tree but for the villages.  Mengyang is a few hundred meters higher than Jinghong and the altitude gradually increases further north.  No Shui Dai villages exist in the district.  Huayao Dai villages dominate, but there are also a few Han Dai villages, including the closest one to Mengyang.  The Han in Han Dai means ‘dry,’ to indicate that this Dai sub-group lives away from streams and rivers.
       So do the Huayao Dai.  And another characteristic they share with the Han Dai is housing.  They live in mud-brick houses with tiled roofs, generally set on the ground and not stilted like those of the Dai Lu.  They surround their compounds with bamboo fences to keep the animals out and keep old-fashioned handlooms to weave and embroider their clothing components.  
Mannazhuang ladies
       In the early 21st century the prefecture government chose one of the seven Huayao Dai villages in the district to be an official ‘cultural village.’  I was familiar with the concept.  Aini and Lahu ‘cultural villages’ used to lie beside the old road to Menghai.  But the new highway from Jinghong to Menghai ran right through the middle of these two villages, so as  ’cultural villages,’ replete with ticket booths and people ready to show you around, they ceased to exist.  The Jinuo had one, too, with a huge sculpture of the Jinuo goddess and a re-created traditional longhouse.  And of course, by then the Dai Park in Ganlanba had opened, with the highest ticket price.  But at least it had five villages to explore.
       Mannazhuang, the official Huayao Dai cultural village, was a pleasant surprise; no ticket booth and no handicraft/souvenir shop.   I was there in the company of a Dai resident of Mengyang who wanted to practice his English.  When we arrived, several Huayao Dai women, in full traditional outfits, were standing in the lane next to our drop-off point.  They were a bit shy, surprised to see us and were probably wondering whatever could they possibly talk about with us?
preparing the warps threads
       With my new friend interpreting for me, I told them I lived in northern Thailand and was involved in the ethnic textile business and wanted to know whether they made their beautiful garments themselves.  They did, of course, and used a loom similar to that of the Shui Dai, and if I wanted to see how it worked, women were dressing the loom—preparing the warp threads—right this very moment just two streets away.
       This is the first task in the weaving process, whether it’s for sheets, pillowcases or clothing components, the only one requiring a group effort.  When we arrived at the courtyard a dozen women were at work.  The older women dressed in traditional clothes; the younger ones did not.  But a young woman sat at the bench, rolling the threads around a drum, while the other women attended to the threads, wound around five pillars in a shed. 
Huayao Dai loom
       Just in front of her another woman inserted thin sticks in the line of threads at intervals to keep them straight.  In front of them, several women untangled, straightened and brushed the warp threads before they were wound on the drum.  This particular bolt of cloth was to be 120 meters long, and the women took over an hour to complete the work after we arrived.  That done, the women dispersed.  The next day they would assemble the loom and mount the warp threads on it.
       We left for other houses where weavers were at their looms.  The Huayao Dai loom is a simple wooden contraption with two heddles, which separate every other thread, attached to two foot treadles.  The weaver sits on a bench at the rear of the loom, depresses one treadle to open a shed in the warp threads, then tosses a shuttle with the weft thread through it and pulls the reed forward a few tines to knock the thread into place.
       This kind of loom can only produce plain weave.  Huayao Dai clothing components are full of embroidery and this is done by hand on the loom itself during the weaving process.  The weaver simply ties in yarn of different colors into places on the warp, without using extra heddles.  As the patterns are both different and repetitive, she has to remember exactly which colored thread goes in where and when.  It’s a laborious job, but certainly justified by the result. 
embroidering on the loom
       Men weave, too, but baskets, not cloth.  As in other traditional villages, they are responsible for the heavy agricultural work like plowing and house construction.  They are also in charge of the rituals, usually held at the village ancestral shrine, a simple altar in a grove at the edge of the settled area.  Being animist, the Huayao Dai do not celebrate the Buddhist festivals of the Dai Lu, but the Han Lunar New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival instead.  They do not celebrate Poshuije---the Water-Sprinkling Festival—either, at least in their villages.  But they are one of the contingents in the multi-ethic procession of Poshuijie’s first day.
       For this occasion the women wear the circular, slightly upturned bamboo hat worn by the Huayao Dai in Xinping and Yuanjiang counties, rather than their own round cap lined with silver chains.  The round bamboo cap is better known in Yunnan as a component of the Huyaao Dai women’s outfit, the procession showcases the prefecture’s ethnic clothing for outsiders, so perhaps the Jinghong authorities ordered the switch in headgear.  It’s hard to think that the Huayao Dai women themselves chose to make the change.  But Xinping and Yuanjiang counties are where they came from originally, migrating to Banna in the last decades of the Qing Dynasty.
Han Dai in Jingne
       The other animist Dai sub-group, the Han Dai, is not part of the Poshuijie procession.  Their women do not dress as colorfully as the Huayao Dai, but have a distinctive outfit.  They wear plain black turbans, pastel-colored blouses and a black tubular skirt with a long black apron in front, trimmed with blue and white stripes along the edges.  Besides a couple villages in Mengyang, they also live in Jingne district, northwest of Mengyang.
       All but unknown to tourists, Jingne is notable for the outstanding traditional Dai stilted houses in the three villages close to the town.  These Dai are Dai Lu and share a temple in nearby Dazhai.  Neighboring villages, though, are Han Dai, with houses on the ground.  Like the Huayao Dai they also immigrated to Xishuangbanna in the late 19th century, coming out of Jinggu County.  After I inquired about the Han Dai I’d seen in the town square, my hotel staff arranged a vehicle for me to visit the Han Dai village of Nafa, because there was wedding going on there. 
       I didn’t get to see any rituals, but did observe the wedding gifts—mostly household furniture-- piled up before the house where the feast was taking place.  As a guest, even an unexpected, uninvited one, I was immediately summoned to the feast.  The repast consisted of different pork dishes, sticky rice and several cups of rice liquor, accented by a spirited conversation about Dai in Yunnan and Thailand.  I had the distinct impression I was their first foreigner guest.
Nafa Han Dai village
       When a young woman came to refill my liquor cup, and I asked her, as I did in Mannazhuang, whether she made her own clothes, she at once offered to show me how.  The house loom was just a few meters away, so she sat at the bench, worked the heddles and treadles and demonstrated how cloth was made.  I was already quite familiar with this, but the important point was the pride she took in showing me her weaving.
       Besides the animist Dai, one other sub-group lives in Banna—the Paxitai.  They are Muslim by religion, but ethnically Dai.  Manlanhui is the main settlement, 8 km east of Menghai.  The community traces its origins to two Muslim missionaries from Weishan who came here in the mid-18th century seeking converts.  This site was on the tea caravan route and they set up a ferry on the river in front of the village, which was probably a lot bigger back then, and made a living from ferrying goods and people.  They married local Dai women and became the ancestors of the Paxitai.
Han Dai women in Nafa
Han Dai weaver
Manlanhui’s mosque exhibits both Arabian and Chinese features.  The onion-shaped minaret dome is clearly Middle Eastern style, but the tiled roofs and general layout are more characteristic of Chinese Hui mosques.  The villagers observe Ramadan and Friday prayers, but are not very strict.  Very few women wear headscarves and in general dress like their Buddhist neighbors.  The village has become wealthy thanks to the tea trade and modern cement houses have replaced their former dwellings, which were on the ground, not stilts.
       The other Paxitai village lies on the dirt road 5 km west.  Called Manzhanhui, it is newer, with residents who originated last century from Lancang County.  The mosque is totally Arabian style and not as attractive as that in Manlanhui.  Both Paxitai communities have been expanding their connections to the Hui minority—the Han Chinese Muslims.  Mostly this results in Hui-sponsored Islamic Studies programs. But the Dai Muslims still identify as Dai.  So do the Huayao Dai and Han Dai.  In Xishuangbanna, ethnic identity supersedes religion.  

Manlanhui in 2002  
                                                                    * * *        
for more on the Dai in the area see my e-book Xishuangbanna: the Tropics of Yunnan